Subject: Philosophy / Logic

Subject: Philosophy / Logic

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Formal Logic

|9780822958475|A Philosophical Approach| Many texts on logic are written with a mathematical emphasis, and focus primarily on the development of a formal apparatus and associated techniques. In other, more philosophical texts, the topic is often presented as an indulgent collection of musings on issues for which technical solutions have long since been devised.What has been missing until now is an attempt to unite the motives underlying both approaches. Paul Hoyningen-Huene’s Formal Logic seeks to find a balance between the necessity of formal considerations and the importance of full reflection and explanation about the seemingly arbitrary steps that occasionally confound even…

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Statistical Explanation and Statistical Relevance

|9780822952251|According to modern physics, many objectively improbable events actually occur, such as the spontaneous disintegration of radioactive atoms. Because of high levels of improbability, scientists are often at a loss to explain such phenomena. In this main essay of this book, Wesley Salmon offers a solution to scientific explanation based on the concept of statistical relevance (the S-R model). In this vein, the other two essays herein discuss “Statistical Relevance vs. Statistical Inference,” and “Explanation and Information.”| Wesley C. Salmon|| Philosophy / General Philosophy / Logic Science / Philosophy & Social Aspects

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Logic, Laws, and Life

|9780822984627|Some Philosophical Complications|This volume centers on philosophical issues of the life sciences, particularly genetics and psychology, and the relevance of statistical data as the foundation for inductive reasoning in areas such as vaccination testing, population genetics, evolutionary theory, and natural selection. Also discussed is the role of psychology in defining thought processes, experiences, and behaviors and their subsequent relation to scientific discovery, and advancing knowledge of the human condition and human potential.| Robert G. Colodny|| Philosophy / General Philosophy / Logic Science / Philosophy & Social Aspects

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Aporetics

|9780822960577|Rational Deliberation in the Face of Inconsistency| The word apory stems from the Greek aporia, meaning impasse or perplexing difficulty. In Aporetics, Nicholas Rescher defines an apory as a group of individually plausible but collectively incompatible theses. Rescher examines historic, formulaic, and systematic apories and couples these with aporetic theory from other authors to form this original and comprehensive survey. Citing thinkers from the pre-Socratics through Spinoza, Hegel, and Nicolai Hartmann, he builds a framework for coping with the complexities of divergent theses, and shows in detail how aporetic analysis can be applied to a variety of fields including philosophy,…

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Galen and the Syllogism

|9780822983958|In this book, Nicholas Rescher seeks to settle debates about whether Galen originated the fourth figure of the categorical syllogism. For his definitive evidence, Rescher examines Arabic sources, one of which is “On the Fourth Figure of the Syllogism” by twelfth-century mathematician Ibn al-Salah, and is reproduced here in Arabic with an annotated English translation. Rescher also explores the history and importance of the syllogistic figures in the evolution of logic in Islamic and European cultures, and discusses the debate about the actual number of syllogistic figures.| Nicholas Rescher|| Philosophy / General Philosophy / History & Surveys / Medieval Philosophy…

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