Women’s Rhetorical Roles in the Antebellum Religious Press
Although women’s participation helped the Methodist church to become the United States’ largest denomination by the mid-nineteenth century, women’s official roles diminished during that time. In Beyond the Pulpit, Lisa Shaver examines Methodist periodicals as a rhetorical space to which women turned to find, and make, self-meaning.
Lisa Shaver is associate professor in professional writing and rhetoric and director of women’s and gender studies at Baylor University. She is the author of Beyond the Pulpit: Women’s Rhetorical Roles in the Antebellum Religious Press.
"By analyzing popular antebellum Methodist periodicals, Lisa Shaver attends to words and work of Methodist women who might otherwise go unnoticed. These periodicals created textual communities for the church that extended across the nation. These textual communities fostered new rhetorical opportunities for Methodist women, expanding the roles available to women in the church."—Elizabeth Vander Lei, Calvin College
“Lisa Shaver argues that American Methodist publications in the first half of the nineteenth century rhetorically constructed women's roles in the home, in the church, in the community, and as writers—and in so doing gave women places ‘beyond the pulpit’ from which to be rhetorically effective. Her argument is well supported by attention to primary texts and to theoretical and scholarly sources. Shaver’s book offers a focus on ordinary and unnamed women, rather than on the usual heroes of feminism and/or rhetorical history.”
—Beth Daniell, Kennesaw State University
“In ‘Beyond the Pulpit’, Shaver has thus made visible women who have long remained nameless and rhetorical activities that have long been ignored. And she has shown that, like the church itself, Methodist publications became ‘liminal zones’ or ‘borderlands’ for the rhetorical development of Methodist women.”—American Periodicals
“Shaver not only makes critical interventions by moving feminist rhetorical studies ‘beyond the pulpit’ to excavate and explore the little narratives that indicate women’s significance in Methodist communities, but she also offers an exemplary methodological model that guides scholars toward answering the question: How do we write histories that interrogate questions of rhetoric, religion, and gender?”--Rhetoric Society Quarterly
In the formative years of the Methodist Church in the United States, women played significant roles as proselytizers, organizers, lay ministers, and majority members. Although women’s participation helped the church to become the nation’s largest denomination by the mid-nineteenth century, their official roles diminished during that time. In Beyond the Pulpit, Lisa Shaver examines Methodist periodicals as a rhetorical space to which women turned to find, and make, self-meaning.
In 1818, Methodist Magazine first published “memoirs” that eulogized women as powerful witnesses for their faith on their deathbeds. As Shaver observes, it was only in death that a woman could achieve the status of minister. Another Methodist publication, the Christian Advocate, was America’s largest circulated weekly by the mid-1830s. It featured the “Ladies’ Department,” a column that reinforced the canon of women as dutiful wives, mothers, and household managers. Here, the church also affirmed women in the important rhetorical and evangelical role of domestic preacher. Outside the “Ladies Department,” women increasingly appeared in “little narratives” in which they were portrayed as models of piety and charity, benefactors, organizers, Sunday school administrators and teachers, missionaries, and ministers’ assistants. These texts cast women into nondomestic roles that were institutionally sanctioned and widely disseminated.
By 1841, the Ladies’ Repository and Gatherings of the West was engaging women in discussions of religion, politics, education, science, and a variety of intellectual debates. As Shaver posits, by providing a forum for women writers and readers, the church gave them an official rhetorical space and the license to define their own roles and spheres of influence. As such, the periodicals of the Methodist church became an important public venue in which women’s voices were heard and their identities explored.